Ghatam artiste Suresh Vaidyanathan brings great melody to a wonderful percussion instrument - the Ghatam. While the novelty of a musician playing on an earthen pot fascinates people, he says it the rhythmic sounds that emerge from the surface and depths of the clay pot that is irresistible to foreigners.
Musicologist Bob Gilmore describes American born Ned Mcgowan’s music as one which “strives for an idiom in which various musics – American popular, European classical and avant-garde, Carnatic, a fascination with proportionally intricate rhythms, the use of microtones in the search for new subtleties of melody – and many others, rub against each other and generate new meanings.”
Ned McGowan was a part of the Center for Soft Power’s Yoganiyoga project. He is a composer, teacher, flautist, improviser and curator. His works have been performed throughout Europe, the Americas and Asia. Ned McGowan teaches composition at the College for Arts, Media and Technology in Hilversum, Netherlands.
Ned studied to play the Carnatic flute for several months in Bangalore, with MK Pranesh and it influenced him to learn more about the Gamaka or the ornamentation on a note. “However, to play Carnatic flute is as climbing a very tall mountain and I had already climbed several other mountains in my life, so I stopped practicing.”
However, he did take back Indian rhythm with him. As a professor of Advanced Rhythm and Pulse at the Utrecht Conservatory, and the creator of the International Rhythm Course he says his methods all start with the South Indian syllable system to learn subdivisions and groupings. “Carnatic music has a great method for combining composition and improvisation. I love the approach to ornamentations and rhythm.”
For his PhD research he is exploring the ‘identity of speed in music, from the compositional, performative or pedagogical perspectives.’ “The speed of rhythms in live acoustic music, literally the velocity at which notes are sounding, can be defined in absolute terms based on clock time. But there is also the perceived speed that, in the simplest terms, states that musical material can seem fast, slow or some other relational quality.”
“Speed is articulated by sounding rhythm. Rhythms, however, manifest themselves through a myriad of various implicit and explicit frames, depending on the musical context, including tuplets, meters (traditional and’irrational’), tempo, polytempos, pulses, polypulses, polyrhythms (superimposed frames), additive frames, divisive frames, metric modulation, time brackets and other structures.” In his PhD he is researching the current practice, precise identities and possibilities of the various time frames in music and the bearing they have individually and in combinations on the speed of the music.
In 2016, he released his album The Art of the Contrabass Flute, an album dedicated solely to this amazing instrument. “A phenomenal technique and flawless feeling for rhythm and sound, he knows how to use it perfectly in his compositions,” said Luister Magazine.
A strong facet of Ned’s influence is Carnatic music. He believes that his instrument works well for South Indian music. “Contrabass flute has a full low expressive tone, but it can also play fast articulate rhythms.”
Over the past decade, he has collaborated and performed regularly in India and Europe with Indian musicians Dr Mysore Manjunath, Mysore Nagaraj, Dr Suma Sudhindra, Pravin Godkhindi, Jahnavi Jayaprakash, Ronu Majumdar, B.C. Manjunath, M.K. Pranesh, Anoor Anathakrishna Sharma and Giridar Udupa. “What fascinates me is the Carnatic use of rhythmical complexities developed through a tradition of performance.”
Works exploring Indian forms from a European perspective include Chamundi Hill, for flute and harp, Alap for voice and ensemble, Stone Soup for jazz ensemble, Tusk for ensemble and Three Amsterdam Scenes for voice, viola and keyboards. About his association with India, he says, “I love India, it’s people, it’s food, and the musicians from there are some of my best friends!”
In a research paper on whether music is a universal language, he questions whether the same piece of music can the same thing to people from different cultures?
“The answer, in my opinion, is a clear no. To give a small example, I’ve taken friends from India to classical concerts in Europe and watched them fall asleep while the European audience was elated. Vice versa, I’ve watched Europeans fall asleep during Indian classical concerts while the Indian audience remained in rapt attention.
Further, music isn’t universal even to all the people from the same culture. Not everyone in India understands or appreciates Indian classical music and the same is true for Europeans of European classical music. Think about the common observation that the youth don’t attend many classical concerts, if at all. So if music cannot communicate the same to people within the same culture, how can it communicate equally across the globe?
“What fascinates me is the Carnatic use of rhythmical complexities developed through a tradition of performance.” - Ned McGowan
Of course, these examples are not based on scientific research but merely observations. There has been in depth research, though, done on the ability of music to communicate across cultures. In a study carried about in Montreal, groups of Canadians and Congolese Pygmies were played music from each other’s cultures. The results indicated that while there were similarities in how the two groups responded emotionally to the basic musical elements of tempo, pitch and timbre, there were also broad differences in the preference of music, the judgement of quality (good or bad) and extra-musical associations. This goes to show that perhaps the question of universality does not receive a simple a yes or no answer, that the truth lies somewhere in between the two.”
In order to understand which aspects of music are universal and which are not Ned suggests that we break music up into three parts: the universal, the cultural and the personal.
“The universal elements of music are indeed the ones mentioned in the above study: tempo, pitch and timbre, and they each relate to physiological processes. For example, music in a faster tempo will inspire more movement in the listener than a slower tempo, just as reflected in dance music around the world. Further, human ears are calibrated for the range of the human voice and thus music in that octave will speak more clearly to any human, such as how one can understand the excited quality of a singer even while not understanding the lyrics. Similarly with timbre, a shrieking sound will be dramatic to anyone.
Relating to tempo, the use of rhythm in different cultures provides an interesting analogy to this question of universality, I believe. Think of the common square rhythms in 4 of European classical, jazz and pop compared to the Indian classical rhythms making regular use of lengths of 3, 5 and 7. Or of rhythms in 12 of Africa to the gestural rhythms used in Japanese traditional music. They are all very different in character yet make similar use of sparse or dense rhythms, slow or fast tempos to create lower or higher energy levels in the music. There are indeed universal truths to rhythm, I believe, which are explored differently by each culture.
The 2nd component inherent to all music is cultural context, and it is precisely that context which defines its contained influence. For example in India there are some ragas which are only played at certain times of the day. If one grows up listening to these ragas at their designated times, the association becomes strong. Hearing a morning raga, even in the evening, will still evoke images of sunrise and birds chirping. One who did not grow up or learn these associations will likely not have those same images. Likewise organ music often has religious associations in Europe because organs mostly exist in churches. But for someone from one of the many countries where there are few churches, the sound of the organ would not necessarily bring the worship of god to mind. Lastly, another clear example of the musical barriers between cultures is the lyrics of vocal music. In this respect music clearly mimics the regional quality of spoken language. If only Google translator could also translate musical meaning!”
"The 2nd component inherent to all music is cultural context, and it is precisely that context which defines its contained influence. For example in India there are some ragas which are only played at certain times of the day." - Ned McGowan
He adds that an intensification of the cultural context is found in the musical element of ornamentation, due to its geographical and historic specificity. “The way jazz in the United States is ornamented today is different than 80 years ago and also different between the east coast and the west coast. Likewise, Carnatic gamakas have also evolved over the last eighty years and there are certainly differences in their execution throughout local traditions in southern India. Perhaps the differences in ornamentation occur similarly to differences in accent of spoken languages, which vary locally and over time.”
At the third level, he says music exists on the personal level. “Every individual musician has grown up with a set of experiences which are his or her own. Even two musicians of the same age within the same culture will still have their own unique perspectives, feelings and thoughts. Their identity is exclusive and this is the reason why new voices in music always sound fresh, even within standard repertoire. Just as no two humans are alike, so is every musician unique and that comes out in their music, whether as performers or composers.
This component also refers to listeners, whose perspectives are also coloured by their individuality. To experience this fact, just ask your neighbour at any concert what they thought and understood from the music. While there may be some common opinions, there are always also some differences in perspective. So when we multiply the individual expressions of the musician with the individual experiences of the listener, it is no wonder that music is often considered to be subjective in nature.”
Ned stresses that the more one learns about the music of a different culture the more one can understand and appreciate it. “This, I feel is the real merit of music on the global stage: not its ability to speak the same to everyone, but its ability to teach the listener about the qualities of the maker.”
Anupama Hoskere is the founder of Dhaatu Puppet Theatre in Bengaluru. In this conversation with the Center for Soft Power she speaks about Mahakavi Kalidasa's Malavikagnimitram - a Puppet and Dance Musical by Dhaatu Puppet Theater and about theatre in general. Anupama is taking this show to the US. Set in the 2nd century, the romantic comedy tells the story of Agnimitra, a Shunga emperor who falls in love with a maiden named Malavika who is known to be an extraordinary dancer. Anupama gives us a birds eye view of puppetry in India, the art of story telling and her own journey as a puppeteer.
The Center for Soft Power (CSP) is the fourth center of India Foundation instituted in collaboration with Indic Academy. The Center will give an impetus to the study of soft power, an area of increasing global significance. The Center will engage with practitioners, academics, policy makers and other stakeholders to study, promote and disseminate knowledge, with an emphasis on an India-centric view of soft power. The Center, apart from carrying out research, also proposes to map the various elements of India’s soft power such as Ayurveda, cinema, cuisine, design, handicrafts, sports, literature, music, performing arts, spirituality, tourism, visual arts and yoga.
India’s wide diversity of cultural forms needs study and networking. The Center for Soft Power will be the first center in India with a focus on soft power research, initiatives and leadership. Some of the key activities of the Center are research, establishing a network of cultural entrepreneurs, promoting employment through the soft power economy, collaborating with states to promote religious tourism, and hosting conferences and training programs for various stakeholders. The Center also seeks to collaborate with similar institutions around the world to enable knowledge sharing and promotion of India’s soft power.
Singapore’s Ega Juice Clinic is making life easy for the health conscious. Detox juices to have on the go, beat the slump, energise and revitalize. Founder Sumit Nanda is an Ayurveda aficionado and is very conscious about what he fills in the bottles that people rave about
Sumit Nanda’s personal favourite juice is the Natural immune-booster power shot which is a potent dosage of turmeric (anti-inflammatory), lemon (metabolism), ginger (digestion), amla (anti-oxidants) on a daily basis.
In terms of fruit juice, his favorite is GLOW which is fresh Pomegranate juice. It is full of anti oxidants and helps in the formation of new blood in the body. It has an astringent taste which is good for vata (air), sour which is good for pitta (Fire) and sweet taste which is good for kapha (earth). It is best for all times of the day and all body types as it balances all the three doshas in the body.
Sumit’s juice concoctions are based on Ayurvedic principles. An Ayurvedic diet insists that one must eat only when one is hungry and only eat what one likes. So what does Sumit think of the clash between Ayurvedic diet principles and of Western notions of eating every two hours and eating healthy even if it seems detestable.
"An ancient Ayurvedic proverb says that anything we eat will either cure disease or cause disease, freshly cooked food combines the energy of the fire and air to nourish our body, frozen or packaged food cannot be digested easily and takes away energy from the body and is a source of disease for the body." - Sumit Nanda
“This is a very interesting question and we get this question a lot. This basically highlights the difference between Ayurveda and a modern approach to diet. Ayurveda focuses on an individual and prescribes different diet and lifestyle for different people. The main focus of Ayurveda is on the digestive fire which helps to transform the food that we eat into fuel for the cells in the body. Our human body is a colony of trillions of cells which get nutrition from what we eat. If the food is not digested well, it remains in the body as toxins which is the main cause of all disease.
The human digestive system is like a machine which once activated takes a complete cycle for digestion and absorption of food. Fruits and vegetables which contain mostly water are fastest to digest and take about 2-3 hours, grains take about 5-7 hours to digest, most processed food and meats take about 12-16 hours to digest. It is important to eat only once the food has been completely digested and we feel hungry as the digestion process has been completed and body is ready for digestion again.
Snacking in between meals disturbs the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients from the food in the body and leads to formation of toxins in the body. Even if we eat the healthiest of super foods but if they are not digested well in the body, it is of no use to the body. An ancient Ayurvedic proverb says that anything we eat will either cure disease or cause disease, freshly cooked food combines the energy of the fire and air to nourish our body, frozen or packaged food cannot be digested easily and takes away energy from the body and is a source of disease for the body.
The process of digestion starts with the taste buds in the mouth and the saliva is produced which is the first step of digestion. We start salivating at the sight of good and tasty food. Taste is important for the digestion in the body and detestable things should be avoided unless taken as a medicine to cure any imbalance.
The western notion of eating every two hours comes from a diet given in cases of extreme obesity with very low metabolism, a very small meal of easy to digest food is given which can be digested within 2 hours like one apple, handful of nuts, bowl of porridge, soup etc in a meal. It was never meant to be 3 proper meals along with 3 snacking meals in between.”
One wonders if juicing vegetables and fruits is an Ayurvedic practice or a modern day practice in times when one cannot sit down for a proper meal.
“Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is an Ayurvedic practice of giving a high dosage of raw enzymes and nutrients and used to be generally given during sickness because of weak digestion. In old days, we used to work in the fields and walk in the sun however. Today all of us have weak digestion because of a sedentary lifestyle. We are mostly moving from air-conditioned homes to cars to offices and have a sitting job throughout the day. Since our digestion is generally poor, it is better to consume nutrients as juices.
It is not easy to eat 2-4 kg of fruits and greens everyday but it is easier to consume that amount in form of juice so that we can get the nutrients. It is also important to eat raw fruits and vegetables daily for the fibre which helps the digestive system to function well.”
"The western notion of eating every two hours comes from a diet given in cases of extreme obesity with very low metabolism, a very small meal of easy to digest food is given which can be digested within 2 hours like one apple, handful of nuts, bowl of porridge, soup etc in a meal. It was never meant to be 3 proper meals along with 3 snacking meals in between." - Sumit Nanda
Colourful juices that look and taste delicious. Deep green, mellow turmeric yellow, lively orange… how does one come up with a new recipe every time?
“All the recipes are based on the Ayurvedic principles of food combination. We are all part of nature and regional and seasonal fruits and vegetables help us to maintain our balance with the nature around us. To give an example, we get melons, watermelons and mangoes in summer when the weather is very hot and these help to cool down the body. Similarly, we get oranges in the winter which help to heat up the body. Ayurveda has classified each and every plant and fruit according to its effect on the body and we follow these principles to make the combinations. We add turmeric and ginger to most juices as it helps with digestion and absorption of nutrients.”
Drinking turmeric requires a whole new shift in thinking. How is it better than putting it in food?
“We all need to consume about 5-10 grams of turmeric on a daily basis, it has the best anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral effect on our body. It improves our liver function helping our digestion and cleans the blood. We use fresh turmeric juice as it is relatively easier to digest and can be consumed by people of all ethnicity and background who are not used to the taste of turmeric and are not consuming turmeric in food.
Indian cooking uses a lot of turmeric powder so that we get our daily dosage of turmeric from food. Powdered turmeric has very low absorption in the body and has to be mixed with some natural fat and penetrating spices like black pepper to increase absorption which is the reason it is consumed as curry.
As per Ayurveda, turmeric should never be exposed to any heat to retain its medicinal properties. It has be harvested at night to avoid exposure to heat from sunlight and should be dried in the shade. Most of the turmeric available in the market is dried in ovens and ground in machines generating heat so the medicinal effect is almost destroyed. It is safer to use fresh turmeric because of adulteration in the market.”
How does one avoid changing the chemical composition of ingredients?
“Normal centrifugal juicers use blades and grinders to shred the fruit or vegetable to extract the juice, the blades cut the cell walls and cause oxidation of the juice. The shelf life of the juice is very low and it gets spoilt very fast. The pulp or residue in these juicers is very wet and most nutrients are lost in the residue.
In the cold pressed juicers, the pressure is used to extract all nutrients at cellular level and no oxidation takes place, the shelf life is more and most nutrients are extracted as the residue is very dry almost like wood.”
One of India’s favourite satvik juices is Panakam, made during Ramanavami. Is that on the menu?
“Panakam is very cooling for the body. It is associated with Ramnavami which falls in the summer months and is very good to consume in hot season. We have a pipeline of new product offerings and panakam is on the list. We are experimenting with taste and ingredients and shall be adding it in the future.
Disease manifests itself last in the body. Before that it manifests in the mind. We think we are not well before we start feeling unwell. Can we can invert this and say if we feel physically well, we will also experience mental wellbeing.
“This is a very important aspect to understand as mind and body are completely interrelated. Stress is one of the major cause of health issues in modern day life as our digestion is completely compromised when we are in stress. We cannot digest or absorb when mind is in stress which shows up as many lifestyle disease and symptoms like hypertension, diabetes, migraines etc. Similarly if we are sick, our brain function is affected and we cannot think straight or perform well.
The definition of good health as per Ayurveda is ‘One is in perfect health when the three doshas (vata, pitta, kapha) are in balance, Digestive fire (digestion, absorption, metabolism) is working well, the excretory functions to eliminate toxins are in perfect order, and also be contented in the mind, senses and spirit. The physical body and mental state work in complete harmony, so it is important to keep the body clean for the brain to function well.”
Juices in India are restricted to single fruit juices. How does mixing of different ingredients help?
“It is best to have single fruit when eating fruit as the digestion of each fruit is different from another. It is easier to digest and absorption of nutrients is better when consumed as a mono fruit. When it is in juice or liquid form it is easier to digest without the pulp.
Fruit juices can be combined however one needs to understand the compatibility of fruits when mixing fruits even for juice. Vegetables can be mixed together to eat or in juice. Mixing ingredients helps to get all the wide spectrum of vitamins of minerals available in different fruits and vegetables at the same time in a form that is easy to digest.”
Shri. Ganesh L.Bhat is a seasoned sculptor with many special awards and unique collection! Carving stones, chiseling minds and creating the next generation of sculptors has been his dedicated journey.
“Shilpa Kala is a visual art.You see what is carved and chiseled in silence to understand its significance . If they are carved in a sequence, evidences of the whole story and their meaning reflects right in front of you. I was invited for 17 years to the Art-in-Action festival at Oxford,UK. They went beyond my limited English grammar into the limitless world of learning the sculptural work of art.”, said Shri. Ganesh L. Bhat, the legendary sculptor and Karnataka state awardee in a telephonic interview with CSP.
When were the first sculptures discovered in India, what fascinated you to sculpt and take it up as your profession?
The first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilisation, where stone and bronze carvings were discovered. This is one of the earliest instances of sculpture.Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed further, India produced some of the most beautiful bronze statues in the world as well as unrivalled temple carvings. Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not actually constructed using blocks, but instead carved out of rock, making them perhaps the largest and most intricate sculptures on earth.
My father was a professional priest in one of the oldest Maha Ganesha temple in a village called Idagunji , located on the West Coast of India in Uttara Kannada district in Karnataka state, India. As a child I used to assist him in cleaning the premises, and doing alankara (decorating ) the deity . That’s how my fascination began and continues till date, am happy that it turned into my profession also.
What are the different styles of sculpting? Is there any style you have specialized in ?
Karnataka has the maximum number of Indian traditional styles. Some of the ancient styles are : Hoysala, Chalukya, Chola, Ganga, Rashtrakuta, and Vijayanagara. In other Southern states of India like Tamizh Nadu, Pallava and Chola styles are widely known, Chera and Pandiya are common styles in the state of Kerala, and Kalkatiya style is established in the state of Andhra Pradesh. I studied Sandalwood carvings from Shri. K.G Shantappa, Indian stone carvings from Shri. Devalakunda Vadiraj, and Iconography from Shri. S.K Ramachandra Rao. These Gurus were master sculptors and I am ever grateful to them.Especially under Shri.Devalakunda Vadiraj, I studied for 10 years as an apprentice in the Gurukula System of education( where the student lives and learns from the teacher). Most of my sculptors are in Hoysala style.
What are the ancient classics for the study of Shilpa shastra ( शिल्प शास्त्र /Science of art and craft)?
Kashyapa Shilpa shastra, Rupadhyana Ratnavali Shilpa shastra,Tantra Saara Sangarha Shilpa shastra, Saraswatiya Shipa shastra are some of the ancient classics of Shilpa Shasta ( शिल्प शास्त्र ). All these describe the process, techniques, rules, standard, proportions, measurements, compositions, the meaning and the design of the art and craft of making statues, stone murals, icons, painting, textiles, carpentry, pottery, jewellery, etc.
Its great to know that you have delivered lectures to more than 30, 000 foreigners in ART-IN - ACTION festival at Oxford, UK. What was it about, how was the response?
My Acharya Shri. Devalakunda used to take my sculptures and exhibit them in my name.So my name was known to the committee members of the festival even before they saw me! In 1997,I was invited to demonstrate for the foreigners and explain about Indian tradition, sculptures, drawings and Iconography. I literally became an “Art-Ambassador” of India for the ART-IN-ACTION festival. They did not mind the errors in my English grammar but were so keen and earnest to learn from me the art of making sculptures at the Shoot Farm Studio at Somerset, England. On a western stone I carved with Indian tools. More than 200 artists have participated every year. I was their Art Acharya for 17 years!
What makes Indian sculptures attractive internationally? Whose works inspire you?
Indian sculptures are grand and have a profound character to them. They are enhanced with carvings that describe their heroism.For example Krishna as a Supreme being is portrayed along with carvings of cows, Gopikas, saints , the Govardhana mountain,the flute etc. Foreigners are amazed by Indian perspectives of sculptures. They find it divine. They are in awe and wonder of our temple architecture too.
Temples in India are world class Universities for sculptors. The architectural principles of Hindu temples in India are described in Shilpa Shastras.
Its a great study of aesthetics, culture, science, civilization etc that help in understanding the designs, geometries,mathematical principles and intricacies in creative construction of sculptures.
Ajanta and Ellora caves, adorned with beautiful sculptures, paintings and frescoes, are considered to be one of the finest examples of ancient rock-cut architecture. Located near Aurangabad in the state of Maharashtra,India, they are declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites attracting several international tourists.
I greatly admire the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, the icons in the history of Western art and craft.Michelangelo’s fresco painted on the ceiling of Sistine Chapel is stunning & Mona Lisa, the famous of Leonardo's works seems to be most valuable paintings in the world! How much these prolific sculptors & painters must have toiled year after year to have made such a monumental influence during the Renaissance!
Which other countries have you been invited, to showcase and teach your craft?
I have been invited to Ireland, France, Paris, and Germany. I have also conducted workshops at the British Museum,Victorian &Albert Museum in London. Some of them have even bought my sculptures.
What is the difference between Indian and Western style of sculptures?
In my knowledge, the most important difference is that in Western styles modelers - person or material like clay are used, that aids them in making the sculptures. In the Indian way, creativity first happens in their mind, and then they set out to carve and chisel based on their inner visualization.
Western sculpting happens mostly on white marbles as it seems closest to the color of the human body. In Indian sculpting, various types of stones such as sandstone, shell stone, slate stone, granite are used even though marbles are also used in some places.
Aroma, colors, and even music/dance is considered therapeutic . How is sculpting a therapy for you?
Sculpting is medium to mould your expressions, your inner thoughts and feelings. Your understanding and imagination of particular subject takes on an external visible form. This creative process itself is therapeutic.You stare fixedly for a few minutes at a sculpture of an angry bull, you can vent out all your frustrations!Looking at a beautiful flower sculpture melts your heart and makes you appreciate beauty. Therefore every sculpture can influence your mind and heal your soul.
What has been your most beautiful sculpture, any thing specially made for people abroad?
I have carved many Ganeshas. In theVII century, Ganesha was popular in Indonesia, Java, Bali, Japan, Nepal , Burma, Srilanka, China, Afghanistan, Pakistan. There where”Gaanapatya Pantha”,a strong group of followers who made the murtis of Ganesha widesspread. India was a larger country then.
Later India became geographically smaller and when different religious groups occupied the country we lost these Ganeshas. They became “abroad Ganeshas”. Even today, Kangiten is worshipped as a deva ( god) in Japan .
It is represented as an elephant-headed male and female couple, venerated as giver of joy and prosperity and remover of obstacles. Saraswati, Krishna Radha, Dancing Shiva, Hanuman are some of the other dieties I have completed my work on.
I have carved a 9 feet long 5 feet high bull out of a single limestone as a tribute to the thousands of cows that were lost in the Foot-and-Mouth disease in UK.It became a historical memorial underlying the sacredness of cows! My sculptor on Mother and Child on a limestone has also been installed at Chalice well, Glastonbury, UK.
When people see your sculptures, what do you hope they understand and appreciate ?
I sculpt keeping the purpose of the art form in mind. I don’t wish to confuse or give them difficult guesses. I want them to enjoy the beauty, the intricacies, the contours, the geometry and what the image stands for.My sculptures should not be a question paper, but an answer sheet!
How many sculptors have you made till now. Do you have your own school here where you impart training ?
I am blessed to have made more than a 1000 sculptures! I used to train many students at KPG Prabhu Artisan Training Center at Bidadi, Bangalore sponsored by Canara Bank for 18 years. More than 700 students have learnt at the Center. Nearly 50 foreign students have received training from me abroad.Now I have my own studio in“Deva Sculpture” in Sakalavara, Bangalore. My journey in teaching continues. I was a member of the advisory committee for National Gallery of modern art. I also serve as a Director for the Art Institute for Children.
How do you see your art as science ?
In recent times the raw materials used for sculpting are plaster of Paris, wax, plasticine, reisen, concrete/cement etc. These materials are non organic and have certain chemicals that can be toxic and hazardous.
Whereas teracotta, wood, metals such as gold, bronze copper, silver these are organic. But the ultimate media is stone!Throughout history, stone has been the principal material of sculpture.Stone has the longest life,exceeding any other life forms. Hence working on the stone gives a sense of comfort and strength just as a child feels happy and healthy in the presence of the mother.
From your rich experience what do yon think the future generations need to carry on this great art form?
The new generation must be taught the techniques of sculpting in a Sampradaya (community) way, with a curriculum that has a standard structure.
Study on how temples were built, the encouragement it received from great kings and patrons is a must in the academic syllabus of an education system. Funding for tuition from private and Government organisations can transform the talents of earnest learners into very sustainable employment opportunities in future
Link to Shri Ganesh's website:
Ahara 2019: Professor Alex Hankey, an authority on Ayurveda, Yoga and Meditation, talks about the need to propagate the wisdom of Sanathana Dharma as enshrined in the Vedas for a life of wellness and devoid of disease.
Ahara 2019 was a collaboration of Heritage Trust, BEST Innovation University, Indic Academy, and the Center for Soft Power.
Dr Ahalya Sharma speaks about food and nutrition and the ways in which food and wellness are linked
June 17, 2019: At India Foundation’s Center for Soft Power in Chennai, we hosted Mr. Shobhan Saxena and Ms. Florencia Costa from Brazil for an interaction on "From Soft-Power Influence to Economic and Political Gains: India’s Engagement with Brazil and the South American Region".
Mr. Saxena is the President of Indian Association of Brazil. He is a scholar and cultural entrepreneur. He is the founder of BRIC Street, a Sao Paulo-based organisation working on creating a cultural communication, bridging the knowledge deficit and building people-to-people contact while promoting trade between Brazil and India. He is also the founder of Bloco Bollywood, the first and only Indian street carnival in Brazil.
Ms. Florencia Costa is a journalist and cultural curator. Costa has been a journalist for more than 20 years and has worked as foreign correspondents in Moscow, London, Mumbai and New Delhi. She is the co-founder of Bloco Bollywood and the co-founder of BRIC Street. She is also the editor of a Brazilian website on Indian culture.
In the sidelines of the interaction, we spoke to them on understanding more about their initiatives towards enabling India in Brazil through Bloco Bollywood and in other ways.
The interview with Shobhan:
When did you move to Brazil? What are some of your areas of work and initiatives towards enabling India’s image in Brazil and South America?
I moved to Brazil in the year 2012, as a journalist. In the past six years, I have reported extensively for various Indian and foreign publications about Brazil and South America, including the FIFA World Cup 2014 and Rio Olympics 2016. I have also focused on India’s bilateral engagement with Brazil and multilateral forums like BRICS, G-20, IBSA, G-4 and WTO, etc. Besides reporting, I have taught courses on Indian foreign policy, politics, society and cinema at the University of Sao Paulo. I regularly give lectures on Indian economy and foreign policy at Brazil’s top universities, think tanks and other institutions. In the past six years, I have given many lectures on the Indian Constitution, Dr B R Ambedkar, Sardar Patel, Yoga and Meditation, at the Indian Cultural Centre of ICCR at Sao Paulo.
As the president of Indian Association (2016-2020), I have been organizing Indian festivals like Holi, Diwali, Onam, Durga Puja, Independence Day and Yoga Day events in Brazil, which all attract a large number of Indian expats and our Brazilian friends.
My biggest contribution to the promotion of Indian culture in Brazil has been the creation of Bloco Bollywood, an Indian street Carnival in Sao Paulo where we play traditional Indian and Bollywood music. In just four years, our Bloco has become one of the top carnival parties in Sao Paulo, with huge media coverage in Brazil’s top TV channels, newspapers and magazines. This year, we attracted more than 8,000 people – Indians, Brazilians and other expat communities. Today, the Bloco is the biggest Indian gathering and festival in South America, with Indian associations from other countries asking us to take Bloco Bollywood to places like Argentina and Chile. The Bloco has helped in creating a very positive image of India and our vibrant and colourful culture.
What are some of the key areas of work for your wife, Florencia Costa?
Florencia Costa, also a journalist by profession, has lived and worked in India for seven years. She has a lot of interest and engagement with Indian culture and festivals. A co-founder of Bloco Bollywood, she is instrumental in promoting our Bloco among the Brazilians and also in the local media. She is also a regular speaker on India-related issues at various media outlets, think tanks and universities. She has just covered the Indian election 2019 for Brazil’s top magazine Veja, explaining to its readers the vibrancy of Indian democracy.
She has created a new website called Beco da India (The Indian Street), a Portuguese site aimed at Brazilians that takes a 360 degree look at Indian culture and Indian cultural activities in Brazil and other South American countries. We plan to launch the site in July.
Tell us about the Indian community in Brazil and their areas of work.
We may have a total of 5,000 Indians living and working in the country. The majority of these people (3,000) are based in the state of Sao Paulo and Sao Paulo city. All members of the community are represented by the Indian Association of Brazil, which is the sole Indian organization in Brazil. The members of Indian community are involved in trade (textiles and consumer goods), academics, education and businesses like IT, pharma, petroleum, food and cultural activities. Most Indian MNCs like TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Reliance, Lupin, Dr Reddy’s, Ranbaxy and Vedanta have their Latin American head offices in Sao Paulo. The community is slowly but surely growing in numbers as trade and other engagements between the two countries grow.
Bloco Bollywood seems to have gradually evolved into a fine show of strength for the Indian diaspora in Brazil. As its founders what do you have to say about its evolution?
The real Brazilian Carnival happens in the streets in the form of music and dance parties called Blocos. Somehow, the energy and nature of Blocos in Brazil reminded me of the street processions we have in India (Ganesha in Mumbai or marriage processions on the streets of any Indian city). In 2016, after living here for more than 4 years, I realized that many Brazilians had an interest in Indian music and dances, especially Bollywood, but they did not really understand its nuances. So I, with my wife, decided to create an Indian Bloco as an experiment. Our first Bloco happened in February 2016 in Sao Paulo. We invited the members of the Indian community and our Brazilian friends to the street party. More than 700 persons, mostly Indians but some Brazilians, turned up at the Bloco, which is a free, non-commercial event open to all. For five hours, we played Bollywood songs, Indian pop and bhangra and dandiya numbers, with people dancing non-stop to the music. Because of its unique nature, our Bloco got extensive media coverage as people turned up in colourful Indian costumes.
Today, in just four years, it has become the biggest Indian event in entire South America. In 2019, we had more than 8,000 people at two Blocos in different locations. It just shows the power of Indian music, dances and costumes to attract people. The Bloco has also given a big boost to all Indian restaurants in Sao Paulo and all Indian textile traders have benefitted from it, with a hike in sales of Indian dresses close to the carnival.
Given the Bloco’s popularity, we hope to turn it into an important vehicle for promoting Indian softpower in Brazil with the tagline of "Happiness and Peace". We are also working on a social project to give free English classes to underprivileged children and young prisoners, with the purpose of boosting the image of the Indian community in Brazil.
What does the BRIC Street do? When was it founded?
BRIC Street was founded in 2018. We have just opened an office in Sao Paulo, with the purpose of increasing people- to-people contact between India and Brazil, besides promoting business and trade links between the two countries. We will have two websites: one to promote Indian culture in Brazil in Portuguese language and the other one (in English) to work as a resource centre cum online think tank for people working on India-Brazil relations. We also plan to organise an annual seminar and conference called India Dialogue Series in Sao Paulo, with the objective of promoting business, cultural and economic links between the two countries, besides showcasing India’s cultural prowess in Brazil and other South American countries. We plan to host the first India Dialogue in October 2019, in the run up to the BRICS summit in Brazil in November.
What is it about India that resonates with the Brazilian population?
Brazil is a country where India enjoys a very positive image. Also, as the Brazilian culture itself is a mixture of three cultures - European, African and indigenous – the people here are very open to other cultures. Indian things like Yoga, Ayurveda and classical dances are well-known here. Indian food and Bollywood are also becoming popular. Bloco Bollywood has generated a lot of buzz about India, with our team being invited to the top TV shows and getting live coverage on the country’s main channels and wide coverage in newspapers and magazines. Today, Bloco Bollywood has become the main vehicle of Indian culture in Brazil. We have introduced Bhangra, Garba and Bollywood-style dancing on the streets of Sao Paulo. We have also trained a team of drummers from University of Sao Paulo in playing Bhangra beats. Now, one of the top and iconic Samba schools in Sao Paulo has approached us to do a partnership with us. We are also exploring the possibility of getting Indian folk dancers from India to introduce different Indian dance forms in Brazil and create a fusion of Indian-Brazilian music and dance.
Do you see India’s soft power influence translating into strong economic and political relations with Brazil?
Yes, definitely the potential is there. But a concerted effort has to be made by the government, community organizations, Indian businesses, cultural centres, chambers of commerce and influential individuals to make that happen. In that direction, it is very important to bring all stakeholders on a common platform and to work on it regularly and intensely. The proposed India Dialogue by BRIC Street is a step in that direction. With resources and efforts, it can become a platform for promoting business and trade through Indian soft power in Brazil and all other South American nations.
When did the Indian Association for Brazil start and what is its vision and mission?
The Indian Association was founded in 1997. That time the community was really small and the activities of the Association were limited to organising a few festivals for the members of the Indian community. With the increase in the number of Indian people, businesses and cultural activities in Brazil, the Association has grown a lot since then, with a huge jump in its members and activities. The Association has three basic missions:
- Providing a platform for the members of the Indian community to organise Indian festivals and cultural programmes
- Promoting Indian philosophy and culture in Brazil
- Doing social activities for the local community in Brazil
The Association has a big piece of land (18,000 square metres) near the city of Sao Paulo and it is working on developing it as a community centre and a place to promote Indian culture, especially Yoga and Meditation.
Could you describe more about Florencia’s Brazilian website and its different facets?
Beco da India (The Indian Street) will take a 360 degree look at Indian culture with sections like Yoga, Meditation, Philosophy, Cuisine, Music, Dance, Bollywood, Travel, Social Enterprises and Innovation. The site, in Portuguese language, will be a complete resource centre for the Brazilians who are interested in Indian culture. At the same time, it will be a platform for all artists and musicians and dancers who are involved in Indian cultural activities in Brazil. The site will act as a bridge between innovators and social entrepreneurs for collaboration.
Yoga and movies are definite strong pillars of soft power. What are the futuristic aspects of India’s soft power that can bring both Brazil and the entire South America closer to India to strengthen relations?
Besides the Indian Embassy in Brazil and the Indian Consulate in Sao Paulo, which organise several Indian events, the main organizer of Indian events here is the Indian Association. We organize Holi, Diwali, Onam, Navaratri, Durga Puja, and the Indian Independence Day every year. With more resources, we plan to make these events bigger and better so that more Brazilians get an exposure to Indian culture.
Now, as Bloco Bollywood has become popular across Brazil, we plan to use it as a platform for promoting Indian Culture, Philosophy, Cinema, Cuisine, Meditation, Music, Dance and other art forms. We also plan to join hands with local organisations to create festivals around the theme of India.
The best way to promote Indian culture in South America is to create a roving Indian festival, which can travel from one country to another and also use the local talent in each country to give a complete exposure to Indian culture to our South American friends.
We are already working on creating the Federation of Indian Associations of South America (FIASA), a collective of all Indian associations in South America. Active by 2020, the Federation will help in pooling in resources for the promotion of Indian culture and trade links with South America.
Centre for Soft Power, Heritage, India Foundation, Indic Academy
For Free Audio download!!
Composed in Raga Bharata
By Mysore B. Manjunath
Ronu Majumdar – Bansuri
Mysore Manjunath – Violin
Umakant and Ramakant Gundecha - Vocal Dhrupad
Bombay Jayasri - Carnatic Vocal
Vijay Prakash – Carnatic Vocal
Sanjeev Abhyankar – Hindustani Vocal
Jayanthi Kumaresh - Veena
Rafique Khan –Sitar
Ramdas Palsule – Tabla
B C Manjunath – Mridangam and Konnakol
N Amrit – Khanjira
Giridhar Udupa Ghatam
Gurumurthy Vaidya - Pakhawaj
Alice Barron – Violin, London
Ned McGovan – Flute, Holland
Fulvio Sigurta - Trumpet, Italy
Keiko Shichijo – Piano, Japan
Trina Basu - Violin, Canada
Arun Ramamurthy- Violin, USA
Team Raadha Kalpa:
Dance direction and choreography:
Dancers : Padmashree K S
Production and costumes :
Ramya Kadambi , Sahana Shivanand
Lyrics: Shatavadhaani Dr R Ganesh
Music Composer: Dr Mysore Manjunath
Compiled & Arranged Praveen D Rao
Mixed & Mastered Ashwin Prabhath
Audio Recording: Prabhath Studio, Bangalore
Cameraman Anup J Kat
Director Sharan Ranjit
Assistant Director Staj Soften
Editing Nithin Francis
Video Studio Sugar Short Studio
Support & Encouragement Dr H R Nagendra (Yoga Sri & Padma Sri) Chancellor SVYASA Yoga University
Vedanta and I
Dr Shin Shin Tang is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist at the Oregon Mind Body Institute at Eugene Oregon. In her practice, she has worked with a wide variety of concerns including depression, anxiety, relationships, and grief. She says Vedanta teachings have helped her “foster the strength of the therapeutic relationship as well as help clients see themselves as whole people, bigger than the mental and emotional challenges they face”.
Dr Shin Shin Tang, Clinical Psychologist, at Oregon, USA, says Vedanta permeates her life through little things like chanting a mantra at waking and before eating, meditating, performing a puja once a week at a local shrine and also through her yoga practice. Influenced by the teachings of Swami Dayananda and Swamini Swatmavidyananda, and their teachings on the Vedas and other sacred texts from Indian sages, Vedanta permeates her work as a therapis
While the West is constantly talking about a Mind- Body connection, Dr Tang says Ayurveda sees no distinction between the two.
“Regarding the mind-body connection, to paraphrase an Ayurvedic doctor I have met - there is not really talk of a mind-body connection in Ayurveda because mind and body are seen as the same thing. There is no need for the idea of a 'connection.' (I recognize the irony that I co-direct a ‘mind-body’ non-profit, but this is where Western culture is at.)
Similarly, in a broad sense, Vedanta teaches that the entire body-mind-sense complex is mithya, an ‘as though’ limited reality. This is what the mind-body have in common. At the same time, mithya reality cannot be completely negated as unreal since it is a manifestation of Ishvara who limitless. So the entire mind-body-sense complex is also Ishvara.
On a more specific level, the Vedic teachings do acknowledge the importance of cultivating a clear mind in preparation for the knowledge. (However, Swamini Svatmavidyananda ji is careful to specify that while the knowledge takes place in the mind, it is not of the mind.) A necessary component of preparation means taking care of the body through self-care and diet. Using the body in sattvic ways such as performing rituals, meditating or not causing harm to other beings is also taught. Having a sattvic lifestyle helps clear the mind. The mind cannot be at ease otherwise. In these modern times, we also have the gift of psychotherapy, which increases self-love. Then one can be ready for the ‘supertherapy’ of Vedanta as Swaminiji calls it.
On how Vedanta affects my practice:
It frankly keeps me sane! Without Vedanta, I don't know how I could function in relationships with family, friends, or my patients. I'll try to explain the mechanisms a bit.
There are many, many approaches to psychotherapy. However, the research is becoming clear that the one common factor in facilitating change in people is the quality of the therapeutic relationship. That is, how much the client feels understood, cared for, and trusts the therapist. Whatever other techniques one uses in therapy seem to be interchangeable. Vedanta teachings help me foster the strength of the therapeutic relationship as well as help clients see themselves as whole people, bigger than the mental and emotional challenges they face.
Swaminiji says one can simultaneously love the person and not like the behaviour. In other words, one can see the behaviour and emotions as mithya and the person as Ishvara. This ability to discriminate between conditional reality (mithya) and unconditional reality (Ishvara) is called viveka. As a therapist, it helps me:
1. Love my clients more freely - to quote Swaminiji, viveka is the source of compassion. So beautiful, yes?
2. Help my clients see themselves more clearly - that they are not identified by this mess of depression, anxiety, hurt feelings, etc.
3. Have healthy boundaries with my clients - I strive to serve them as best as I can, but in the end, they have free will given by Ishvara and I do not have control over that. Viveka also teaches me not to identify with what is not me.
It is a paradox that the teaching of oneness helps me have healthy boundaries but I think it works in this way: my practicing seeing myself as none other than the whole helps me recognize that all else is not real. Then, I can let go of identifying with others as myself or depending on them to make me feel good and worthwhile. In one meditation Swaminiji teaches, we imagine there is an inside and outside of ourselves - the inside being Ishvara and the outside everyone and everything else. Of course, this is a yet another duality, but it helps with letting go of mithya?”
Dr Tang’s says she must have always been longing for the teachings from a very young age and they came unbidden.
“I think I have always been longing for the teachings of Advaita Vedanta and Hinduism but for a long time was not consciously aware of this desire. Despite this ignorance, somehow the teachings found me rather than me finding them. However, I suppose there was a journey of preparation. My first exposure to Hindu philosophy was Alan Watt's The Book, a Westerner's interpretation of Vedanta, which I ‘happened’ to pick up at a bookstore in college.
Discovering yoga years later in my late 20s gradually fuelled an interest in Sanskrit until I realized I needed a spiritual teacher. I actually first tried Buddhism, but while I did find great peace in meditation, I still felt something was missing (which I now know was Brahman) and had not found the right teacher. I spent several years participating in a community dedicated to Amma (the Hugging Saint) and going to her tours. This was my first exposure to Hindu rituals and teachings. Like yoga, these experiences fuelled a greater desire to be taught, but at the same time, I was not finding the teaching I desired in this community. Still, I thought I had found my guru in Amma.
That was when Dr Tang had an epiphany of sorts. A beautiful icon of Goddess Mukambika arrived in Eugene, Oregon in 2008 via Swamini Swatmavidyananda.
“I was strongly drawn to this Devi shrine and simply wanted to worship her, but, as Swaminiji jokes, one cannot have the Devi without the teacher whether one likes it or not! I met Swaminiji in the shrine itself and have been her student since. She had such a clarity about her that cut through all my misery and longing. I feel as though Swaminiji heard my prayers and found me rather than me finding her. She has been my primary gateway to Hinduism, teaching me how to conduct pujas and chant mantras, participate in homas, and, of course, study Vedanta.”
Dr Tang says that as a young child between 4 and 6, she remembers understanding that “time was not absolute and that the ego did not matter.” “Growing up, I lost touch with this knowledge, but the memory of this clarity is what keeps me returning to Vedanta and Swaminiji over and over again. The teachings are restoring my memory of who I am,” says the therapist who is drawn towards Advaita Vedanta and the concept of moksha.